To ensure quality care, clinicians need skills, knowledge, and attitudes related to technology that can be measured.
This paper sought out competencies for mobile technologies and/or an approach to define them.
A scoping review was conducted to answer the following research question, “What skills are needed for cliniciansand trainees to provide quality care via mHealth, have they been published, and how can they be made measurable and reproducibleto teach and assess them?” The review was conducted in accordance with the 6-stage scoping review process starting with akeyword search in PubMed/Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, APA PsycNET, Cochrane, EMBASE,PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus. The literature search focused on keywords in 4 concept areas: (1) competencies, (2)mobile technologies, (3) telemedicine mode, and (4) health. Moreover, 2 authors independently, in parallel, screened the searchresults for potentially relevant studies based on titles and abstracts. The authors reviewed the full-text articles for final inclusionbased on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were keywords used from concept area 1 (competencies) and 2 (mobiletechnologies) and either 3 (telemedicine mode) or 4 (health). Exclusion criteria included, but were not limited to, keywords usedfrom a concept area in isolation, discussion of skills abstractly, outline or listing of what clinicians need without detail, and listingimmeasurable behaviors.Results: From a total of 1232 results, the authors found 78 papers eligible for a full-text review and found 14 papers directlyrelevant to the 4 key concepts. Although few studies specifically discussed skills, the majority were clinical studies, and theliterature included no lists of measurable behaviors or competency sets for mobile technology. Therefore, a framework for mobiletechnology competencies was built according to the review, expert consensus, and recommendations of the Institute of Medicine’sHealth Professions Education Summit and Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education framework. This frameworkborrows from existing competency framework domains in telepsychiatry and social media (patient care, medical knowledge,practice-based learning and improvement, systems-based practice, professionalism, and interpersonal skills and communication)and added domains of mHealth clinical decision support, device/technology assessment/selection, and information flow managementacross an electronic health record platform. mHealth Asynchronous components require additional traditional learning, teaching,supervisory and evaluation practices. Interactive curricula with case-, problem-, and system-based teaching may help facultyfocus on decision making and shape skills and attitudes to complement clinical exposure